Posttensioning methods for reinforcing concrete the. Flexural and tensile crack widths can be expected to increase with time for members subjected to either sustained or repetitive loading. Before a post tension slab is poured, highstrength steel strands or cables, called tendons, are laid in a tight grid. One method of avoiding such hair cracks is to remove the surface skin of the concrete by brushing it with a stiff brush soon after setting. In a post tensioned beam, the tendons are stressed and each end is anchored to the concrete section after the concrete has been cast and has attained sufficient strength to. At first glance it seems rudimentary, but there is a tremendous amount of complexity involved in. One alternative to removing old concrete is to pour a new layer over the existing slab. Post tensioned concrete repair post tensioned concrete corrosion the principal cause of corrosion of post tension tendons is the presence of moisture and air voids around the strands. Concrete, although strong in compression, is weak in tension. Removing an existing concrete slab is a lengthy, laborintensive process. Throughout the garage, on every slab, post tensioned tendons needed replacement and deteriorating concrete required repair.
They illustrate there is no better value than castinplace concrete parking structuresnow and for the future. Post tensioned concrete is used for castinplace concrete and for bridges, large girders, floor slabs, shells, roofs, and pavements. Ensure proper vibration to ensure consistency of concrete and no honeycomb voids between aggregate where no cement is present. Many people dont understand how they work and the benefits. Principles of prestressed concrete in concrete, a large prestressing force is applied by tendons embedded into it to develop high bearing stresses at. Sep 02, 2019 pre tensioned and post tensioned concrete is not well understood. Two broad categories of cracking can occur in groundsupported posttensioned slabs.
A psc is applied with compressive stress on the crosssection in advance before the application of loading on the member so that the stresses after loading are fully or partially balanced by the prestressedstresses developed due to the tensioning of steel. Compressive stresses are introduced in prestressed concrete either by pre tensioning or post tensioning the steel reinforcement. In addition to significantly reducing labor, this option saves money and resources, but you should also consider its disadvantages. Post tension cable polished concrete, epoxy floor, concrete repair. Types of cracks in fresh and hardened concrete causes and. The alternative to pretensioning is post tensioning.
Posttensioning tendons, which are prestressing steel cables inside plastic ducts or sleeves, are positioned in the forms before the concrete is placed. Post tension slab although concrete is a strong material for construction, it is not resistant to breakdown especially where longer concrete slabs are required like in a bridge or a length of a beam. Mar 09, 2020 with concrete, weather is an important factor, as wet or dry conditions can significantly change the timing of when you stress the tendons. The best way to ensure this doesnt happen is to educate your construction teams on the best practices for designing and constructing post tensioned slabs. Bonded post tension slab cracking due to restraint. For this, the concrete slab is tensioned with a process called prestressing and the slab of concrete which comes out after this process is known. The strain corresponding to ultimate stress is usually around 0. Post tensioning tendons, which are prestressing steel cables inside plastic ducts or sleeves, are positioned in the forms before the concrete is placed. Comparing pre tensioned and post tensioned concrete.
Moisture infiltration can occur from numerous sources including initial construction, ground water, roof leakage, and poor quality grout pockets. Ensure proper vibration to ensure consistency of concrete and no honeycomb voids between aggregate where no. Long concrete slabs elevated above the ground are limited in length due to the danger of cracking. For example, a concrete wall can support tons of weight from above, but will crack easily if pushed sideways forcing it to bend. Too much water, insufficient curing, or from over trowelling. Whats the solution of cracks in the post tensioning slab. Epoxy injection high strength epoxy is injected into cracks in concrete to weld back concrete to monolithic properties. Why concrete cracks concrete crack solutions ardex ireland. Shrinkagecompensating concrete in posttensioned buildings. Preventing cracks on posttensioned concrete slabs pro builder. Once the concrete cures to an allowable strength, the tendons are put into tension and the tension is set using anchors, which puts the concrete into compression.
These projects cover the spectrum of castinplace concrete garages, both in size and application. The cause of cracking in posttensioned concrete box girder. New homes cracks that occur in the first few months or years. A post tension slab is a slab of concrete that has been prestressed using a specific method to increase the strength of the concrete. Pt beams and slabs have an inherent advantage over nonpt members when it comes to. Four reasons why concrete cracks bright hub engineering. The purpose of this publication is to widen the understanding of post tensioned floor construction and show the considerable benefits which include minimum storey heights, rapid construction, economy, maximum design flexibility, minimum number of columns, optimum clear spans, jointfree, crack free. Now assuming all these are taken care of, no cracks should be there.
Post tensioning concrete increases the many benefits associated with a concrete framed building. As a building material, concrete is strong in compression, but weak in tension. Posttensioned concrete cable repair contractors concrete. Cracking in groundsupported post tensioned slabs on. The cause of cracking in posttensioned concrete box. Similarly, a slab will crack if too much weight is placed in one spot, or if the soil settles unevenly, bending the slab. When a garage floor is first poured, the concrete begins to harden contractors say cure and when this process takes place the concrete shrinks a little. Post tension nightmare post tension foundation problems. Founded in 1904 and headquartered in farmington hills, michigan, usa, the american concrete institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensusbased standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design. The occurrence is primarily due to differences in moisture andor temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of a concrete slab. For this reason it needs help in resisting tensile stresses caused by bending forces from applied loads which can result in cracking and ultimately failure. A normal slab is basically a rcc reinforce cement concrete slab whereas a post tensioned slab is the psc prestressed concrete slab. Post tensioning actively loads the structure one of the main differences between a post tensioned beam or slab and a typical reinforced concrete element is that the strands drape or profile inside the concrete their. Shrinkage crack considerations for posttensioned foundations.
Cracking in hardened concrete can result from any one of many causes. Tensioning building structures march 12, 2020 2020 educode las vegas. All concrete will shrink during the curing process which lasts up to a year after the time concrete. Prestressed concrete is a highly versatile construction material as a result of it being an almost ideal combination of its two main constituents. Some of the cracks are more than 30 feet long, and i can feel a slight difference in the rise on each side you can even. Cracking in post tensioned concrete box girders generally results, in a broad sense, for the following reasons. Reinforcement helps extend the life of concrete, overcoming cracking that is inherent in the material and preventing its failure. As a result, even though post tensioning is meant to help prevent a slab from cracking, the slab can still crack if the tensioning process is done incorrectly. Sealing cracks in posttensioned deck concrete construction. This video describes the benefits and challenges of both methods and describes how they are built. Hair line crackings in garage floor post tension slab.
The disadvantages of pouring concrete over existing concrete. Post tension slab eliminating cracks and joints in concrete. Afterwards, once the concrete has gained strength but before the service loads are applied, the cables are pulled tight, or tensioned. Compressive stresses are introduced in prestressed concrete either by pretensioning or post tensioning the steel reinforcement. The ultimate stress is reached when a large crack network is formed within the concrete, consisting of the coalesced microcracks and the cracks in the cement paste matrix. Post tensioned slabs are a great tool to help reduce joints and control cracks. Posttensioning actively loads the structure one of the main differences between a posttensioned beam or slab and a typical reinforced concrete element is that the strands drape or profile inside the concretetheir vertical location changes along the length of the member. Lots of cracks in new post tension slab inspectionnews. Issues in posttensioned construction concrete construction.
When a heavy live load is brought upon a structure, its concrete slab undergoes tension, which leads to the formation of cracks and ultimately deformation occurs. However, only the use of special chemical expanding cement will eliminate it. Post tensioned concrete uses a sheathed cable called tendons which are placed before the concrete is poured. Curling is the distortion of a slab into a curved shape by upward or downward bending of the edges. The advantages of castinplace post tensioned concrete parking structures discussed above are shown by the case histories that follow. Use of shrinkagecompensating concrete in post tension buildings john wayne airport parking structures a2 and b2, santa ana, ca over 70,000 linear feet of cracks were measured and repaired in the 480,000 square feet of floor area in both structures. Its a shame, because those cracks wreck havoc on vehicles and make for really bumpy rides. Cracks in concrete are extremely common but often misunderstood. Miyagi construction concrete repair,post tension cable repair.
Nov 25, 2008 post tensioned concrete is a term heard more and more in the construction industry today. Several methods exist for prestressing concrete, with post tensioning being a very common one. Grisolia, with almost a decade of experience in the home building industry, has assisted housing giants affected by quality issues like cracking in posttensioned slabs in southwest markets. Also, because aci 302 says a reasonable level of cracking is from 0% to 3%, it implies that no cracking, 0%, is a possible, reasonable level. Top 10 biggest mistakes made in posttensioned concrete design. Post tensioning steel cables or rods are added to exterior of concrete beams or the underside of prestressed slabs to increase the structural capacity of these members. Concrete, cement explain the principles of prestressing. I had a call this morning from a prospective client who was concerned about cracks in the concrete foundation of the home they. Information about how posttensioned concrete is constructed. Two of these projects were built more than 40 years ago, one has been in service for 12 years, and one is new, completed just 19 months before this writing. This means the foundation is reinforced by cables laid in a grid arrangement and tensioned after the concrete cures sufficiently with the intent to create compression in the foundation concrete to resist cracking.
Over tensioning, bad prepration design layingcuring of concrete, bad structural design, bad load estimation and temperature, right. Munson specializes in post tensioned concrete and other types of play courts, and has won national and state awards for its concrete tennis court installations. Jan 24, 2015 post tension slab although concrete is a strong material for construction, it is not resistant to breakdown especially where longer concrete slabs are required like in a bridge or a length of a beam. Bonded post tension slab cracking due to restraint rapt structural 19 mar 14 22.
In a post tensioned beam, the tendons are stressed and each end is anchored to the concrete section after the concrete has been cast and has attained sufficient strength to safely withstand the prestressing force as shown in fig. Any post tension slab inspectors out there i am building a new home in longview, texas, and they poured our post tension slab 7 days ago. By the third day, i noticed a crack in the back patio, and by the fourth, there were sprawling cracks throughout the entire foundation. This means the foundation is reinforced by cables laid in a grid arrangement and tensioned after the concrete cures sufficiently with the intent to create. The concrete cannot shrink smaller than the object it is poured around, and this causes enough stress to crack the concrete see figure 2. Mar 27, 2018 concrete is the most important construction material on earth and foundation of our modern society. Apr 24, 2019 the cracking moment is the moment corresponding tensile bending stress at which concrete will start to crack. Post tensioned concrete is a term heard more and more in the construction industry today. Significant overbalancing of the weight of the concrete with posttensioning can actually lift and crack the slab. Since contractors and engineers know that most concrete is going to crack, they like to control where it is going to crack. Significant overbalancing of the weight of the concrete with post tensioning can actually lift and crack the slab. This method of reinforcing concrete enables a designer to take advantage of the considerable benefits provided by prestressed concrete while retaining the flexibility afforded by the castinplace method of building concrete structures.
Because the garage needed to remain in operation, the owners major concerns included maintaining safety, minimizing disruption and keeping as much of the garage available for use during the extensive repairs. Cracking is assumed to occur when the restrained strain exceeds the tensile strain capacity of the concrete. Shortening crack mitigation crack evaluation tn451010616. Surface cracks are also caused by surface dressing with a mortar having too rich in cement.
In post tensioned construction, the tendons are stressed and anchored after the concrete member they are embedded in has developed sufficient strength fig. Posttensioned concrete is a unique structural system that is widely used to construct many types of structures such as bridges, parking structures, buildings and tanks. Dec 25, 2014 post tension slab although concrete is a strong material for construction, it is not resistant to breakdown especially where longer concrete slabs are required like in a bridge or a length of a beam. Shrinkage cracks in concrete slabonground foundations are a significant. Eurocode recognises that cracking is normal in concrete subjected to bending, shear, torsion, and restraint from movement clause 7. Shrinkage crack at slab penetration to combat random shrinkage cracks, control joints often mistakenly referred. Used to resist cracking caused by curing shrinkage or thermal expansioncontraction in slabs and walls. Flexural cracks due to eccentric post tensioning forces will remain open throughout the life of the wall, and may create problems related to water penetration, freezethaw or corrosion. The use and proper construction of slip details is therefore critical for the performance and aesthetics of post tensioned concrete.
All concrete will shrink during the curing process which lasts up to a year after the time concrete is placed in the forms. Post tensioning is a technique for reinforcing concrete. Pt cables are used to compress the concrete and reduce cracking, whereas rebar is dormant until the concrete cracks. Precast posttensioned segmental construction is defined as a method of construction for bridges, buildings, tanks, silos, cooling towers, tunnels and other structures in which primary load carrying members are composed of precast concrete segments post tensioned together. The best that a contractor can do is to try to control the cracking. Pretensioning and posttensioning in prestressed concrete. The foundation in question was a post tension cable reinforced foundation as opposed to a foundation which is reinforced with steel rebar see the typical photograph in this article. On the premise that those who ignore history will be condemned to relive it, this paper attempts to document those types of problems that lead.
May 14, 2020 a post tension slab is a slab of concrete that has been prestressed using a specific method to increase the strength of the concrete. These causes include a drying shrinkage, b thermal stresses, c chemical reactions, d weathering, which involves heating and cooling and is linked to thermal stresses, e the corrosion of steel reinforcing, f poor construction practices. The alternative to pre tensioning is post tensioning. Shrinkagecompensating concrete in post tension buildings part 2 of 2 this is the second of a twopart article with case studies of four projects that show the effective use of shrinkagecompensating concrete to mitigate restrainttoshortening rts cracking in post tensioned concrete buildings. The cement is a powder substance and when it is combined with water, it hardens into concrete. Concrete can support a lot of weight in compression, but is weak in tension. But since a post tensioned slab does not have excess rebar to minimize and distribute cracking, restraint cracks will be large and very noticeable. They require a specific level of thickness to maintain their strength usually at least 4 inches for a slabongrade foundation. Cracking in groundsupported posttensioned slabs on expansive soils by ken bondy1. Post tension slab working principle, components and construction. Shrinkage crack considerations for post tensioned foundations june 1, 2015 shrinkage cracks in concrete slabonground foundations are a significant public relations problem to home builders.
This tension makes the concrete slab and foundation much stronger than concrete without reinforcement and helps reduce cracking. Pretensioning and posttensioning in prestressed concrete design. It can withstand strong mother nature storms, cushioned systems can be applied on the slab and works great both indoor and out. Cracks, cracks, cracks what is a reasonable level of cracking. On the basis of limited data, the following expression has been suggested to estimate the maximum crack width in direct tension aci 224r. Preventing cracks on posttensioned concrete slabs pro. This means that for cracking to occur, some part or the whole of the concrete section.
The tension in the tendons results in an equivalent compression in the concrete, which causes the member to shorten fig. When an owner sees a crack in his slab or wall, especially if the concrete is relatively new, he automatically assumes theres something wrong. What is the difference between normal slab and post. In addition, recommendations are made for crack mitigation and maintenance of buildings that are post tensioned with unbonded tendons. The best way to ensure this doesnt happen is to educate your construction teams on the best practices for designing and constructing post tensioned. Jul 17, 2017 conventional concrete slabs are limited in length and thickness. Jul 17, 2017 damaged concrete is a poor base for a new slab. Conventional concrete slabs are limited in length and thickness. Flexural cracking due to sustained post tensioning forces is believed to be more severe than cracking due to transient loading.
For more information about post tension foundation repair contact james at 6024182970 or you can always go to for more information. Concrete that has cracked and concrete that is going to crack. Post tensioned concrete courts provide many advantages, the design of the system will greatly decrease the chances for cracking, settling and ponding. Bridge division office of engineering federal highway administration washington, d. Many concrete contractors will say that there are two types of concrete. Consequently, although posttension slabs will generally hold together, they have a higher propensity for cracking than do slabs built with plenty of rebar. The biggest drawback of asphalt courts is not that they crack, for even a post tensioned slab may crack from shrinkage or even develop minor structural cracking, but that the cracks. Some say it doesnt matter, and concrete will crack either way. Aug 17, 2018 munson specializes in post tensioned concrete and other types of play courts, and has won national and state awards for its concrete tennis court installations. The cause of cracking in post tensioned concrete box girder bridges and retrofit procedures walter podolny, jr.567 988 268 964 246 1019 297 818 1491 274 1352 379 1394 1537 900 1210 1204 1609 937 485 788 340 1429 1043 849 1509 81 1526 1185 1508 1024 324 1196 647 1328 157 702 1208 279 643 1096 782